Oral Cancer Screenings
The goal of oral cancer screening is to detect mouth cancer or precancerous lesions that may lead to mouth cancer at an early stage — when cancer or lesions are easiest to remove and most likely to be cured.
People with a high risk of oral cancer may be more likely to benefit from oral cancer screening, though studies haven't clearly proved that. Factors that can increase the risk of oral cancer include:
- Tobacco use of any kind, including cigarettes, cigars, pipes, chewing tobacco and snuff, among others
- Heavy alcohol use
- Previous oral cancer diagnosis
- History of significant sun exposure, which increases the risk of lip cancer
Oral exams for oral cancer screening have some limitations, such as:
- Oral cancer screening could lead to additional tests. Many people have sores in their mouths, with the great majority being noncancerous. An oral exam can't determine which sores are cancerous and which are not.
If your dentist finds an unusual sore, you may go through further testing to determine its cause. The only way to definitively determine whether you have oral cancer is to remove some abnormal cells and test them for cancer by a procedure called a biopsy.
- Oral cancer screening can't detect all mouth cancers. It can be difficult to detect areas of abnormal cells just by looking at your mouth, so it's possible that a small cancer or precancerous lesion could go undetected.
- Oral cancer screening hasn't been proved to save lives. There's no evidence that routine oral examinations to look for signs of oral cancer can reduce the number of deaths caused by oral cancer. However, screening for oral cancer may help find cancers early — when cure is more likely.
During an oral cancer screening exam, your dentist looks over the inside of your mouth to check for red or white patches or mouth sores. Using gloved hands, your dentist also feels the tissues in your mouth to check for lumps or other abnormalities.
If you wear complete or partial dentures that are removable, your dentist or doctor will ask you to remove them so that the tissue underneath can be examined.
If your dentist discovers any signs of mouth cancer or precancerous lesions, he or she may recommend:
- A follow-up visit in a few weeks to see if the abnormal area is still present and note whether it has grown or changed over time.
- A biopsy procedure to remove a sample of cells for laboratory testing to determine whether cancer cells are present. Your dentist may perform the biopsy, or you may be referred to a doctor who specializes in oral cancer diagnosis and treatment.